Infectious bursal disease (IBD), also known as Gumboro disease, infectious bursitis and infectious avian nephrosis, is a highly contagious disease of young chickens and turkeys caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), characterized by immunosuppression and mortality generally at 3 to 6 weeks of age.
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is economically important to the poultry industry worldwide due to increased susceptibility to other diseases and negative interference with effective vaccination. In recent years, very virulent strains of IBDV, causing severe mortality in chicken, have emerged in Europe, Latin America, South-East Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Infection is via the oro-faecal route, with affected bird excreting high levels of the virus for approximately 2 weeks after infection. The disease is easily spread from infected chickens to healthy chickens through food, water, and physical contact.
The infectious bursal disease is caused by a birnavirus (infectious bursal disease virus; IBDV) that is most readily isolated from the bursa of Fabricius but may be isolated from other organs. It is shed in the faeces and transferred from house to house by fomites. It is very stable and difficult to eradicate from the premises.
Animals can be infected with infectious bursal disease virus
The natural hosts of IBDV are the domestic fowl including chickens and turkeys. Young chickens that are 3-6 weeks age are the most susceptible to clinical disease. Wild birds, such as healthy ducks, guinea fowl, quail and pheasants, have been found to be naturally infected with IBDV. There is no evidence that IBDV can infect other animals or people.
Causes Of Gumboro / Infectious Bursal Disease
The infectious bursal disease is caused by a virus called infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). IBDV is the only species of the virus under the Avibirnavirus genus in the Birnaviridae family of viruses.
Clinical signs of affected birds can include depression and ruffling of feathers, poor or lack of appetite, huddling, unsteady gate, reluctance to rise, and diarrhoea (sometimes bloody). Immunosuppressed survivors may be affected by other disease agents, resulting in various secondary infections that can end in death, or manifest as respiratory or gastrointestinal disease.
The bursa of Fabricius is the main organ affected, showing swelling from edema and haemorrhage during the early stages of the disease and then shrinking (atrophy) 7-8 days following infection. Bleeding in the breast and thigh muscles may be noted due to impaired blood clotting. Enlarged kidneys and spleen are also typical of IBDV infection.
Treating Gumboro / Infectious bursal disease
Gumboro disease cannot be successfully treated, so if there is a risk of this disease, vaccination is the best policy. The virus is resistant to a number of disinfectants. The primary focus for prevention and control should be on the biosecurity of poultry premises. Rigorous cleaning and disinfection between flocks are essential for minimizing potential disease spread.
Passive immunity may protect against challenge with homologous IBDV, as does the previous infection with homologous avirulent strains. Breeder flocks may be immunised against IBD so that they would transfer protective antibodies to their progenies, such as broiler and pullet chicks. Low-attenuated vaccine strains may cause damage to the bursa of Fabricius and immunosuppression in susceptible chicks. Biosecurity with adequate restriction to farm visitation and distancing from other flocks. Post outbreak hygiene measures may not be effective as the virus can survive for long periods in both housing and water.
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is seen in young domestic chickens worldwide and is caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Signs can include depression, watery diarrhoea, ruffled feathers, and dehydration. Infectious bursal disease (IBD, Gumboro) is an acute, highly contagious viral infection in chickens manifested by inflammation and subsequent atrophy of the bursa of Fabricius, various degrees of nephrons-nephritis and immunosuppression. Clinically the disease is seen only in chickens older than 3 weeks.
Signs of Gumboro in poultry
Clinical symptoms may include trembling, ruffled feathers, poor appetite, dehydration, huddling, vent pecking, and depression. The majority of the lesions are found in the bursa of Fabricius when birds are necropsied.
Infectious Bursal Disease IBD / Gumboro Vaccine Procedure
Take the vaccine product in the sterile syringe, using the blunt needle of 15 gauges or calibrated dropper instil one drop into the eye per chick. Ensure that the vaccine drop is completely absorbed in the eye. depending on the season.
Need to vaccinate at least 5 - 7 days earlier, thus at 28 - 30 days of age. At this age, intermediate vaccines are effective in layers. First intermediate vaccination at 21 days of age, second at 28 days of age.